Tips For Resolving A Stream Of Redirection Errors To The Log

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    In this guide, we will highlight several possible causes that can cause the fault current to deviate in the log, and then point out ways to resolve the issue.

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    First of all, it should be noted that there are different options depending on your purpose and shell, so this requireslittle knowledge of several aspects. Also, some directives like time and strace are printed after stderr by default, but may provide a special redirection method specific to the general command

    The basic theory of redirection is that a process that is created by a layer (assuming it is an external command combined with a non-integrated shell) that is started with fork () about and execve () <. / code> system calls are generated, and before that another system call dup2 () will perform the necessary redirects before execve () occurs. In the sense that these redirects are inherited within the top-level shell. And m &> n m> n.txt tells the shell like open () combined with dup2 () <. / code> a system call is made (see also How input redirection works, What is the difference between redirecting and a pipeline, and What exactly does output redirection mean and returns)

    Shell Redirects

    Most often it is provided by 2> in wrappers like Bourne, nfor example dash (which is denoted as / bin / sh ) and also bash ; First, the default is a POSIX-compliant shell, and the second is no doubt the one used by most users for communications. They differ in function syntax, but fortunately fault current redirection works in a similar way in our company (except for the standard No &> ). In the case of csh and its human derivatives, redirecting stderr has no effect.

    Let's go back to 2> . There are two important points to note: > means that the redirection operator hides the file, and 2 is used as an integer for the file descriptor stderr; In fact, the POSIX shell language requirements define redirection to section 2.7 as follows:

      [n] word redir-op 

    For simple redirection, > 1 implies an integer available for stdout , i.e. echo Hello World> Is / dev / null due to echo Hello World 1> / dev / null . Note that an integer operator or a redirection operator cannot be quoted, otherwise aboutThe bolt won't find them as such and will instead use them as the literal text of the string. The spacing is important because the integer is next to the statement redirection, but the file may or may not be new to the statement redirection, i.e. command 2> / dev / null and command 2> / dev / null will almost certainly work fine.

    Much simplified syntax for a typical shell command:

      command [arg1] [arg2] 2> / dev / null 

    The trick is that redirection is available everywhere. This works for both the 2> [arg1] command term and the 2> [arg1] command. Note that bash invest has a &> method that allows both stdout to stderr to be redirected at the same time - this is bash specific, so if you are looking for related portability to scripts this might do not work. See also Ubuntu Wiki and What Happens Between Difference &> and Also 2> & 1.

    Note. The redirection operator > truncates any file and overwrites it if that particular file exists. 2 >> can often be used to addadding stderr to the database.

    If you've noticed this, > should be one command. With scripts, we can redirect the entire stderr operation of the script from outside, as in myscript.sh 2> / dev / null , and we can use most of the built-in executables. The built-in exec has the ability to reprogram the stream to fit the entire shell session, either interactively or through a series of scripts. Something

      #! / bin / shexec as 2> ./my_log_file.txtstat / etc / nonexistent_file 

    In this example, the log file stat: stat cannot display "/ etc / non_existing_file": no such file or directory .

    Another way to use these functions. As Kopchyushek said in his answer, we can write a function declaration with a redirect already associated, i.e.

      some_function ()    Command1    Command2 2> my_file_journal.txt 

    Commands That Write Only Stderr

    Commands such as time and strace expand their stderr output to the default standard mode. In case of time command, the only viable alternative isimmediate execution of the entire This is

    command.

      time echo foo 2> & 1> file.txt 

    Alternatively, you can permanently redirect a synchronous list or subshell if you want to split the output (as pointed out in the related post):

    redirect error stream to log

      sleep time only once 2> sleep.stderr; 2> hour.txt 

    redirect error stream to log

    Other commands of these types, such as strace dialog , provide ways to redirect stderr. strace comes with a -o option that lets you specify exactly what filename is specified and where the output should always be written. There is also the option of writing a text file for a single subprocess that sees strace . The dialog command writes the text user ui to the stdout output, but also stderr to store the corresponding output in a variable (true var = $ (...) and Pipelines only receive stderr ), my partner and I need to swap the ad descriptors

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  •   result = $ (dialog --inputbox test 0 3 2> & 1 1> / dev / tty); 

    but there is also a --output-fd flag that we can use as well. There is also Named line method. I recommend reading the explanation related to the dialog command for a detailed description of the process.

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